m88 สำรอง Gambling in the Philippines is regulated by government-owned Philippine Amusement and Gaming Corporation (PAGCOR), which was established in 1976.
Guests have access to a24-hour butler service, private chef, in-suite spa facilities, a dwelling theater and private pool and Jacuzzi.
Even though the Philippines has more than a dozen casinos, the Solaire Resort & Casino is the initial that puts Manila in a position to compete with the existing top Asian casino cities, Singapore and Macau.
According to a report intheMacau Every day Occasions, Solaire is placed well above Manila’s Resorts Planet, which opened in 2010just across from the international airport and quickly became the casino of choice among the country’s high rollers.
Solaire’s18,000-square-meter casino includesnearly 300 gaming tables for baccarat, blackjack, craps, revenue wheel, pontoon and roulette, as effectively as 1,200 slot machines and a six,000-square-meter VIP gaming salon.
“Business analysts suggest that Solaire is probably to attract 30 % of the company from Resorts World, particularly at the upper finish,” says the report.
The US$1.2-billion Solaire Resort & Casino, an integrated resort on Manila Bay, is the initially of four casino venues getting constructed on prime, reclaimed land as component of agaming and entertainment complexdubbed Entertainment City. Villas variety in size from 600 to 1,000 square-meters and overlook Manila Bay.
Solaire was created byBloomberry, a publicly traded company listed on the Philippines Stock Exchange owned by billionaire Enrique Razon, Jr.
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Other Las Vegas-style attractions contain an entertainment lounge supplying reside music..
Manilas newest and most luxurious casino has opened its doors, upping the ante in the Philippines’ drive to compete with Asian gambling hot spots Singapore and Macau.
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ทางเข้า fun88 The tournaments they play in do not turn them into pros either. Even so, they can’t be regarded pros just because they have earned millions of dollars in their careers or simply because they can be identified by their style of play. Everyone thinks that one particular is a very good poker player if they win huge amounts of income.
The media does not make one particular a skilled poker player. You need to not commit your complete month-to-month price range on poker just due to the fact some players have succeeded in winning substantial amounts of income in televised tournaments.
What position should poker occupy in your life?
Prior to playing on line poker and try to turn out to be a qualified poker player a single have to pass by means of a period of learning from books, videos or internet articles. Titles are not worth anything, so do not waste time with them. Other folks are regulars of unique poker websites. The money they have earned is not a choice criterion either. Also experience is significant so you can start out from the bottom and gradually raise the stakes if you really feel confident.
You cannot differentiate an amateur poker player from a expert 1 basically by the style of play.
There are so many poker players you most likely have not heard of but that does not mean that they are not very superior players.
It is stated that hope dies last, but there is generally a limit. For instance, the organizers of big tournaments need the deposit of a quite consistent sum of money.
Skilled poker players and amateur ones are particularly difficult to differentiate. Some people only play poker when they have the time. Even so, you have to invest some cash in order to win income later on. Just play your game and most importantly be constant.
Merit versus title
Always be careful!
A poker player demands to meet a lot of circumstances in order to be thought of a professional. Some folks play to spend back their debt. There are numerous variations involving these two kinds of poker players. .
Everybody believes that the poker players they see on Tv are pros. Of course, you are permitted to hope that you will win significant sums of cash, but you should really not invest like crazy with no objective in mind whatsoever. It is essential to uncover a balance amongst the gambling encounter and the other elements of your life. This is just a mindset. No great can come from spending endless hours playing a game of likelihood. This is why there is so a lot debate on this subject. A lot of men and women are born with a talent for this game, that’s why there are a lot of players that seek to support other young players.
People play poker simply because it gives them a opportunity to make cash. Don’t forget that you require to find a balance. The game of poker can make a actual distinction in your life if you just discover how to play it effectively. Then, there are on the web poker players and offline poker players, each with their personal preferences and habits. The designs of play are distinct but the result is the very same: someone wins the pot in the finish. You do not need to have a good name in order to make wise choices in poker. The status of professional poker player is not achieved only by spending endless hours in front of the pc screen.
Do not be afraid of winning!
What is the distinction among amateur poker players and skilled poker players?
You can also win dollars without the need of investing any website like fun88no1
m88 สำรอง While it may be tempting to spam your affiliate link on forums and comment sections, this is short-sighted and totally ineffective. First of all, most spam filters recognize the structure of affiliate links and it will automatically be deleted, possibly getting you banned from the forum in the process. Secondly, if the affiliate network receives complaints about one of their links being “spammed” on a forum or comment section, they will most likely terminate your account and withhold any pending payments, as they do not like to be associated with such tactics. YouTube videos with good tags will rank very well in search engines. When a sale is made from someone who arrived through your affiliate link, the vendor will pay you a percentage of the sale.
Your rating: None Average: 4 (1 vote)
Affiliate marketing has become a popular way to earn money online. Again, an impartial review-style format is a good idea. If you send them nothing but spammy advertisements, they will unsubscribe en masse. In addition, there are many premium review-style themes for WordPress, Blogger, and other blogging platforms that will enable you to set ratings and insert affiliate links with ease. If there existed a way to earn six figures a year without any of those skills and without expending any effort, everyone would already be doing it. Once you find a niche and method that works for you, there is no limit to how much money you can earn.
Frank Jones, The Home Biz Whiz develops home business opportunities and software to help you succeed in your affiliate marketing. Everyone can use some extra cash, and some even make a full-time career out of it.
But as is the case with any business venture, it’s important to use caution and know who you are dealing with; the affiliate marketing business has attracted more than its fair share of scammers looking to make a quick buck. There exists a multitude of time-tested strategies for promoting your affiliate products in a way that will generate a high click-through rate and a large number of sales. They must opt in to receive information about your affiliate products; you cannot buy a list of un-targeted email addresses and flood their inbox with unsolicited messages (this is not only ineffective, but illegal as well). Just like with a niche blog, try to provide your subscribers with good, useful content so that they will remain subscribers for a long time. Find out more about how to stay home and make money with Frank Jones at: —> http://www.frankjones.net
REVIEW SITES: Many vendors of e-books and other digital products will be happy to send you a review copy, or at least a sample of the product to help you be descriptive.
Affiliate marketing provides a great opportunity to generate a stream of income from your own home. When a visitor clicks through this link, they will be taken to the vendor’s sale page. Focus on creating top-quality content for your readers, so that they will trust your judgment when you recommend a product. Here are just a few of the most common methods: . Don’t be fooled. Once in a while, you can send them an affiliate link to a good product or service that you think they will find useful. It can seem very daunting to start what is essentially a home business, but it is quite simple. If you have access to the product or service, try to show video of it being used. You will essentially be collecting email addresses of users who sign up to receive information from you. When you have selected which products or services you would like to promote, you will be given an affiliate link. All you have to do is write articles on your niche of choice and link to products that your visitors would like. NICHE BLOGGING: If you already have a blog about one of your interests or have thought about making one, this is a good method for you. While there is no limit to how much money you can make in affiliate marketing, it requires hard work, creativity, and innovation. Basically, you will sign up at an affiliate network and “affiliate” yourself with a product vendor.
VIDEO MARKETING: This method consists of producing a video (or several videos) showcasing the product you are promoting. Some basic search engine optimization is required, but that is a subject for another article.
EMAIL MARKETING: This can be used in combination with a niche blog. These hucksters often herald themselves as “gurus” and charge exorbitant prices for a “system” contained in an e-book promising earnings of tens of thousands per day with zero effort. You can earn plenty of money by working hard, working smart, and applying the tried-and-true methods previously mentioned. Percentages vary between networks and products, but they are typically between 4 and 20 percent. There are many email marketing services that will generate web forms which can be placed on your website m88 facebook
m88 สำรอง Examples include, David Beckham, Ruud van Nistelrooy, Jaap Stam and even Peter Schmeichel. Barcelona, 6 trophies in a single season! However, I disagree that he is better than either Sir Alex Ferguson, or Jos Mourinho, both the only ever managers to win the top treble (Top Domestic League, Top Domestic Cup, UEFA Champions League) in England and Italy respectively. He started off his managerial career at St. Mirren, where he would win a solitary Scottish First Division title, before moving to Aberdeen. Maybe after his time at FC Bayern Mnchen, where he has yet to begin his managerial term yet, after signing a pre-contract to start in 2013/14 season, he may then live up to these two giants of the managerial world. Manchester United were stuck on 7 and even Everton and Arsenal were two ahead on the title count on 9, so for Ferguson to make his team more successful that Liverpool seemed pretty impossible at the time.
The fantastic thing about Sir Alex Ferguson’s reign at Manchester United is that time and time again he has reinvented his team, whilst keeping a core of experienced talent, helping develop his squads and keep the club challenging for the biggest prizes in football at the same time as ‘transitioning’ the team. However at this primitive stage this is just conjecture.
Firstly, allow me to start with Sir Alex Ferguson. Liverpool, with a league triumph in 1989/90 made their English top division trophy count an impressive 18. He then moved on to Manchester United, who had not won a top division title in 26 years until the first ‘Premier League’ era title. He had vowed that he would “knock Liverpool off their perch”. He also won the SPL two further times in his seven year stay, making him the manager of currently, the last non-Old Firm team to become champions. It is in his time at Aberdeen where he became noticed as a manager with the potential to be the best.
Let me begin by stating that a lot of people would argue that the best living manager is not part of this article, because of what Pep Guardiola achieved in his short stint at the top at F.C. Undoubtedly the greatest and most successful British manager ever. Other successes at Aberdeen were highlighted by a UEFA Cup Winners’ Cup triumph in 1982/83 season, an amazing achievement that has been remembered to this day. He never lets players get the better of him, and what is more important, he never lets other managers get the better of him, he is the king of mind games, he invented football mind games, and no-one has ever matched up to him, no-one until Jos Mourinho, that is.
Jump forward just over 25 years and Ferguson & Man United have amassed 12 Premier League titles, eclipsing their greatest rivals Liverpool to have 19 successful title chases to Liverpool’s 18, not only that but they have triumphed in Europe twice with the UEFA Champions League, won the FIFA Club World Cup, and even nurtured a young Portuguese boy in to one of the World’s best players and an 80million superstar, all because of the managerial ability of Sir Alex Ferguson.. He managed to guide Aberdeen to the pinnacle of Scottish football for only the second time in their history in his second season. he never allows players to become bigger than his Man Utd project, and has an amazing ability to move players on just before they decline from their peak
I do not use a computer software to make money on betting on horse racing. I use “How to ‘Place Bet’ on Favorites for a Living” by Mohammed Ali. In addition, I suggest that you concentrate on only one or two race tracks every horse betting season. You will find the “Daily Racing Form” available at most newsstands, at horse racing venues and by direct-mail subscription as well as online downloads.
Finally, use online resources, such as TwinSpires, to make bets online and receive free tips on handicapping
Make money betting on horse racing by learning how to handicap the horses properly by reading the articles on this site. You will find that most horse racing blogs are moderated and maintained by experts who have developed reliable handicapping systems and are more than willing to share secrets with subscribers. In addition, I suggest using a system that has been proven. In addition, track the performance of each horse and knowing whether the performance of the horse is improving with maturity or declining with age. In addition, many of these blogs feature online-discussion forums on which you can swap information about effective betting methods and systems.
In addition, I suggest that you review all race results on a regular basis by studying copies of the “Daily Racing Form.” This newspaper can be instrumental in teaching you how to handicap properly and win more money. You will also need to know how each horse performs in a variety of weather and track conditions and whether there is a synergy between the horse and a particular jockey. You might also read online blogs about horse racing in order to make money by betting on horse racing. By handicapping the horses and race conditions and studying the various mathematical models, you may make money betting on horse racing.. I spend my time knowing the Southern California race tracks
While there is no guarantee that anyone will win consistently by betting on horse races, recent developments in computer software and handicapping methods have reduced the amount of financial risk
You can also take a look on online lives scores of the matches and take the reviews of expert’s punter
Managing your betting amount is a crucial part to consider while you are placing soccer bets. Generally people get excited and make bets for larger amount all the time,this can lead them to debts because bankroll emptied quite early.
Online-betting.me.uk provides all information that you require for placing winning soccer bets. Make sure you have maintained a betting limit , instead of wagering with hefty bucks, play with a small amount many times.
As the grand soccer world cup 200 is gearing near, players have great opportunity to try hand in making lucrative bets. Online betting websites are a great source which provide players with enriched betting odds, higher stakes and array of bets for novices as well experienced punters. Many times you might be very close to win,but end up losing. It’s quite visible that Spain and Brazil are hot favorites for this soccer season, with presence of other teams,you need to carefully analyze their individualized performance and then place bets. Here you get trusted and reliable statistics, tables, betting tips and latest results that relates to football betting. Website offering betting tips have plethora of tips along with a statistical analysis that guides you and let you focus on the certainty of the bets at stake.
The money making strategy in soccer betting is all about taking advantage from the information available,the more you are acquainted with latest trends the more you have chances of making as much money as you can. However, despite of being an unpredictable affair betting lets you make huge money within a short span. Websites guides players about recommendable bookmakers, betting tips, free bets and bonuses which let the players to have a unique betting style.
Make your thoughts clear had have a strong base to make the most of this soccer betting season.
By: Pedro Walker. It is essential to make a strong by soccer betting,you do not easily lose your calm and play with utmost patience.
The real of of online soccer betting is not as simple as the flip of a coin which lets you decide outcome of the match. Losing with a small amount will not be a disaster,you can easily make other bets with more excitement and fun.
All of us are aware that betting is a risky affair,this unpredicted event can take you to deep profits and at the same time you can lose also. Both of the teams have unbeatable good players,but then you should make bets after doing plenty of research work,don’t just stick to one,play smartly. Making money from soccer betting is all the matter of taking advantage from the information
Make your thoughts clear had have a strong base to make the most of this soccer betting season.
All of us are aware that betting is a risky affair,this unpredicted event can take you to deep profits and at the same time you can lose also. Here you get trusted and reliable statistics, tables, betting tips and latest results that relates to football betting. Make sure you have maintained a betting limit , instead of wagering with hefty bucks, play with a small amount many times. Both of the teams have unbeatable good players,but then you should make bets after doing plenty of research work,don’t just stick to one,play smartly. Losing with a small amount will not be a disaster,you can easily make other bets with more excitement and fun.
The real of of online soccer betting is not as simple as the flip of a coin which lets you decide outcome of the match. Online betting websites are a great source which provide players with enriched betting odds, higher stakes and array of bets for novices as well experienced punters. It’s quite visible that Spain and Brazil are hot favorites for this soccer season, with presence of other teams,you need to carefully analyze their individualized performance and then place bets. Making money from soccer betting is all the matter of taking advantage from the information.
By: Pedro Walker. However, despite of being an unpredictable affair betting lets you make huge money within a short span. Generally people get excited and make bets for larger amount all the time,this can lead them to debts because bankroll emptied quite early. Websites guides players about recommendable bookmakers, betting tips, free bets and bonuses which let the players to have a unique betting style.
Online-betting.me.uk provides all information that you require for placing winning soccer bets. It is essential to make a strong by soccer betting,you do not easily lose your calm and play with utmost patience.
The money making strategy in soccer betting is all about taking advantage from the information available,the more you are acquainted with latest trends the more you have chances of making as much money as you can.
As the grand soccer world cup 200 is gearing near, players have great opportunity to try hand in making lucrative bets. Website offering betting tips have plethora of tips along with a statistical analysis that guides you and let you focus on the certainty of the bets at stake. Many times you might be very close to win,but end up losing. You can also take a look on online lives scores of the matches and take the reviews of expert’s punter
Managing your betting amount is a crucial part to consider while you are placing soccer bets
Deutsch – It’s a universal law that says, what you sow, so shall you reap. Learn to connect and the world is yours.Tags: Get over yourself, getting over yourself, get over myselfLuz Da Serra – Encontre O Seu Caminho De Luz By: Jill Cohen – O nome Luz da Serra nasceu de uma imensa admirao que os seus fundadores, Bruno J.Gimenes e Patrcia Cndido, sempre tiverem ao ver o pr do sol na serr gacha. You can determine this hour by starting at sunrise, and then counting forward to your lucky hours. In addition, you should look for the number (4) to appear in your winning numbers. This number varies by the day of the week. The teacher teaches us how to survive on this earth by fighting with all the barriers of life. A teacher educates a student and makes him or her socially capabl … Finally, if you were born in the range of April 14th thru April 19th, you will be luckier during the Moon’s fourth quarter.
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http://www.articlesnatch.com – Spirituality
Sunday: You are luckier during the 7th, 14th, and 21st hours after sunrise.
About the Author:
Keith Abbott is the developer and owner of ‘Numerology 4 You’ where you can order your own Numerology reading, including your complete Lucky Days calendar. Deutsch – From the time we are born, we are always on our way to becoming something. ===>Lucky Partners
Monday: You are luckier during the 4th, 11, and 18th hours after sunrise.
Tuesday: You are luckier during the 1st, 8th, 15th, and 22nd hour after sunrise.
Friday: You are luckier during the 6th, 13th, and 20th hours after sunrise.
If you were birthday falls in the range of March 21st thru March 28th, you will be luckier during the days of the New Moon. Connecting with people is an art. Don’t play the victim when you are subjected to the same type of treatment you have meted out to others.Tags: universal law, victims, sow, reap, abusive behaviorA Teacher Helps Us To Nourish Our Career And Future By: savemypc – A teacher has a lot of importance in our life from the time we are born. If it falls in the range of March 29th thru April 5th, you will be luckier during the days of the second quarter of the Moon. Most people are so busy thinking that they don’t allow their minds to be quiet enough to receive the answers.Tags: outside the box, meditation, thinking, consciousness, astralWe’re On The Way To Becoming By: Connie H. Deutsch – Thinking outside the box actually requires you to suspend the thought process long enough for the answers to come into your mind. In other words, what goes around, comes around. Connection comes from the heart. Tags: experienced teacher in BrisbaneThe Most Unexpected Website I Came Across Was That Of The Grace Church! By: onlinejazz – Internet always throws up some surprise or the other for us anyways! The more we explore, the more we come across things! And most interestingly, we end up finding out websites that we never thought that existed.Tags: Christ Church videos, video sermons online, video sermonThinking Outside The Box By: Connie H. As an Aries, you probably know your basic Horoscope, but did you know that there are particular days and hours of the Month which are especially lucky for you? Here are some times when you will be especially lucky.
===> Lucky Moon Days.
If you are born under Aries, and are playing a game of chance with a partner, you will be luckiest when that partner is born under one of the following signs: Aquarius, Gemini, Leo, Sagittarius, or Libra.
Thursday: You are luckier during the 2nd, 9th, 16th, and 23rd hours after sunrise.
Many sources hold that you are luckier during the day when your ruling planet is governing. Using fadic addition from Numerology gives us the sum of (13) which reduces to (4). A signal to change, to slow down, to breathe more deeply and to go within.Tags: spirituality, happiness, happy, success, personal developmentWhy Is It Important For A Doctor To Opt For Spiritual Retreat In Bali? By: Ashis Kumar – Here in this article you will find some points that describe why doctors opt for spiritual retreat in Bali.Tags: retreat bali, bali retreat, retreat, meditation, yogaGet Over Yourself, Connecting Is Key To Communicate Your Dream, So Get Over Yourself! By: Sandy Z – Everyone communicates but few connect. If you are going to gamble on the lottery during the month; you should buy your ticket on one of the following days: the 4th, 13th, 22nd, or 31st. Do you have a dream or vision that you want to communicate to the world. For people born under Aries, the following calculations hold.
Lessons In Surrender – Becoming More Spiritual By: Heidi Alexandra Pollard – It began with a feeling, then a sign, a nudge and then a book. You must first connect. Visit him on the web today at http://www.numerology4you.com
Wednesday: You are luckier during the 5th, 12th, and 19th hour after sunrise.
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The celestial number of Aries is (7), and Mars, the ruling planet of Aries has a numerical value of (6). Uma regio muito privilegiada quanto paisagem e a pureza do ar.Tags: espiritualidade, sucesso e prosperidadeKaal Sarp Dosh Yog And Its Effects By: Vijay Bharti – Kaal Sarp Dosh is one of terrific condition in ones kundli so it require proper remedy and astrological consultation by Vedic Astrologers
Tags: kaal sarp yog puja, kaal sarp dosh puja, kaal sarp doshWhat Goes Around, Comes Around By: Connie H. Therefore, any day of the month who’s digits reduce to (4) is a lucky day for people born under Aries. If your birthday falls in the range of April 6th thru April 13th, you will be luckier during the days of the Full moon. When we look back, we can measure our progress by the way our thoughts and actions have defined our life.Tags: becoming, spiritual, near-death, God, mortality
Saturday: You are luckier during the 3rd, 10th, 17th, and 24th hour after sunrise.
People born in the date range of March 21st through April 19th have the Astrology sun sign of Ares the Ram. It is difficult to survive without a teacher
Few bother to even look at the comment line for the race, let alone take the trouble to seek out and watch the replay of the race. The horse with the best combination of the two is the play.
First time starters return only about 60 cents on the dollar, and second time starters are only a little better, returning less than 70 cents on the dollar. It must follow, therefore, that if we bet the best horse that has started at least twice, we stand an excellent chance of beating the takeout, particularly in races that have several first and second time starters.
Horse Racing System #1 – In maiden races, bet the horse with the best last race speed figure that has had at least two career starts. I was able to replicate this result in my own study of nearly 100,000 races conducted a decade later.
Horse Racing System #4 – Bet low-priced favorites to place. Just don’t expect to quit your day job.
The horse with the best last race speed figure (whether Beyer, BRIS, or Equibase) may not be the best horse in the race, but he’s probably not far off, so we can use that as a proxy for selection purposes.
. In most case the public seems to take a horse’s last running line at face value. If the tote board suggests that the public is overlooking these mitigating circumstances, make your play.
In the first place, the parimutuel takeout in horse racing is large (over 15%) and the mutuel pools are relatively efficient, so that even systems with a strong basis in reality can’t overcome the size of the takeout.
How do we identify the best pedigree, then? If you’re using the DRF past performances, use the stud fee as a proxy for quality, and the Tomlinson figure to judge suitability for the distance and surface. Thanks for reading, and see you in the winner’s circle.
Looking for a dead simple horse racing system that will allow you to quit your job and make a living betting the horses in just 10 minutes a day? Good luck with that!
For as long as humans have bet on horse racing there have been system sellers trying to con the gullible into parting with their hard earned money with the lure of easy profits to be made on the sport of kings. My computer studies of pedigree, based on nearly 100,000 races, suggest that using pedigree in that manner offers no advantage to the player.
For instance, many speed figure handicappers reported making horse racing profits in the 60′s and 70′s simply by betting horses with the best last race speed figure. To the extent that most handicappers use pedigree at all, it’s usually to identify horses that may improve when switched to the turf, or those who may be expected to win as first time starters. This is another mistake that bettors make: in a race with a clear standout, many people give up on the win pool and bet their choice to place, thinking that they’ll get paid even if the favorite wins.
Horse Racing System #3 – In maiden claiming races, bet the horse with the best pedigree. My own studies have shown a similar advantage for the inside post in routes.
Horse Racing System #5 – Bet Horses breaking from the inside post in route races. In fact, pedigree does not generally offer wager value with one curious exception: well bred horses do surprisingly well in maiden claiming races. I’ve identified some of the most useful handicapping factors that have a proven history of doing much better than the track takeout and put them together with some simple rules that should make your trips to the racetrack more fun and profitable. The inside post in turf routes actually showed a small profit, but this was based on a small sample size and cannot be relied upon. None of them work.
Horse Racing System #2 – Bet horses that have an excuse for a poor performance in their last race. This is somewhat counter-intuitive since you’d expect that horses with good pedigrees that end up in the maiden claiming ranks probably can’t run at all. It should go without saying that you should actually like the favorite’s chances after evaluating the race with your own handicapping.
Second, the very nature of the parimutuel system itself means that any profits to be made from following a particular set of rules will quickly be arbitraged away as the followers of that system drive down the odds of horses chosen by the system.
Nunamaker reported that the inside post in dirt route races won at a 20% greater than expected rate, and lost only 10 cents on the dollar, much better than the track take. My study suggests that’s not the case.
However, just because systems won’t make you rich doesn’t mean there’s no place for them at all in a horseplayer’s arsenal. Most people who love horse racing would be thrilled just to win a little more and lose a little less on their trips to the track.
Instead of blindly betting all horses breaking from the inside, you might use this to supplement your handicapping, paying particular attention to the inside horse, and betting it when you like the horse on other handicapping grounds. One of the few anomalies turned up by Michael Nunamaker in his pioneering computer study “Modern Impact Values”, published in 1994, was that horses breaking from the inside post position in route races won more than their fair share of races, and were under-bet by the public. The inside post combined with early speed is a particularly potent combination, since the horse will not have to exert himself as much to gain his preferred position at the front of the pack.
This causes the favorite to be under bet in the place pool, leading to a profit opportunity for us to take advantage of by betting the favorite to place. They will, however increase the chances of a profitable day at the races by ensuring that your wager dollars go where they have the best chance of success. Let me let you in on a little secret about these “magic formulas”. With the BRIS pp’s you can use the Sire Production Factor in concert with the pedigree rating. This system takes advantage of one of the few glaring inefficiencies in the parimutuel pools, namely that first and second time starters are badly over-bet.
In that spirit. Because speed figures have gained in popularity over the years, anyone following that system now would have trouble coming up with gas money for the ride home from the track.
None of these systems will make you rich, or even guarantee that you will make a profit. This offers opportunity to more diligent players.
Look for comment lines like “bled”, “lost rider”, “clipped heels”, “stumbled”, “steadied”, “between horses”, “rank”, and “jumped shadows” that suggest that a horse’s last race was not indicative of its true ability
If it’s fun for free, it’s even more so for money.
I personally think they should because casinos should be about grown-up entertainment. For example, companies like GameCo are licensing games for deployment in Atlantic City later this year. In a recent piece Sellke wrote on Gamasutra, he outlines why the Casinbusinessss must begin to adapt to reach a new sort of clientele and in this chat with Examiner, he takes it a step further, elaborating how eSports can play a role in that adaptation.
Sellke: Like a lot of big incumbents, I am concerned that the casino industry has become complacent, or worse, lazy.
Adam Sellke: We’re currently seeing skill-based, first-person gambling games coming onto casino floors. Presumably, these will enable a new level of head-to-head, skill-based competitions, playing true eSports titles. Secondly, these game titles aren’t part of any bona fide eSports franchises. And competitive eSports for money should be only allowed amongst grown-ups (or pros). in my opinion, casino operators need to answer that question with more than “because we want them to be”. It seems to be more of a shoehorn solution where the industry is responding to the opportunity by trying to make eSports fit into what they know. They don’t have the appeal that “real” eSports games have all over the world.
Sellke: I am not sure they should be… Solving it will mean things have to change!
Also, companies like Ourgame are opening large 14,000 square foot, 200 seat arenas in places like Beijing and Las Vegas. Fixing it starts with acknowledging a problem… Most of these early examples aren’t that innovative and look a little uninspired.
Esports is a watershed moment for the casino industry, but the industry will have to step out of its comfort zone in order to make it work for them.
For more information on Evolve Labs, click here.
Hickey Jr.: What games do you think would work best in a casino?
Sellke: All you gotta do is look at your top MOBAs and other competitive titles. Perhaps a seat could be assessed various entry “fees”, where a higher entry fee would essentially correspond to tougher competition (similar to what you see in poker rooms). What form that entertainment takes is yet to be determined. That’s death. That’s definitely the first step, but I’m not necessarily a big proponent of these machines. First off, they call them “VGMs” or video game gambling machines. and then committing to solve it. I fundamentally disagree that eSports should be considered gambling. We have some ideas that we’re not yet seeing out there, so it’s a very exciting time for us.
What if the answer is they shouldn’t be? What should casinos do to still participate in this shift in entertainment?
Patrick Hickey Jr.: How would eSports work in a casino?
Hickey Jr.: Why should eSports be in a casino?
Hickey Jr.: What’s wrong with the casino industry and how could eSports help “fix” things?
National Video Games Examiner Patrick Hickey Jr. A potential downside to this might be that without rank verification, fees would be the only way to set or “regulate” skill level matches. chats with Evolve Labs Founder Adam Sellke, who discusses the possible impact of eSports on casino culture.The founder/ co-founder of several startups (Surtsey, Madoi, Ripshark, Tunebloom, Evolve Labs and more), Sellke has served in individual contributor and management roles at Merck, BBDO, Carlson Companies, UnitedHealth Group and Best Buy. I haven’t seen how matchmaking would work, though. We have some interesting ideas on how to address skill-disparities, but we’re keeping that under wraps for now ;).. A shark vs minnow environment could ensue
One vital tip that I do propose with this kick a$$ software is to check off conservative settings, but raise the high/low numbers by roughly five digits. I couldn’t trust how closely, the trial version was predicting when I should bet. Get the software that will make you filthy rich!
If you’re like me, you could be most likely reading this article because you appreciate roulette. Depending on which casinos you play at, this may influence the number of betting breaks you get but will boost the number of chips you acquire, so it is best to choose an online casino so you can deactivate the moving graphics.
Secret to Winning at Roulette Betting Strategy System.
Now I have been using Roulette Sniper over the previous 2 weeks and I know it’s one of the greatest worthy tools in the universe for beating the roulette table. I am not going to show you the chips that I rake in playing with Roulette Sniper, but I will explain to you that it works.
Remember to maintain smart money management strategies while playing at the online casinos and you will win and walk away glamorously.
This morning I was researching the net looking for an alluring roulette wheel idea I discovered a software application identified as Roulette Sniper. I installed the 60 minute free trial software that the Roulette Sniper website offers me and tried it out. In the first 10 minutes I raked in more cash to really purchase for the Roulette Sniper full version.. Before you apply certain ideas with the roulette wheel, you should educate yourself on how to improve your odds of winning exponentially – and everyone should rake it in.
Roulette Sniper turns the casinos upside down and shakes their pockets empty
The question was, “Why did you visit this casino today?” Besides receiving an odd look every now and then, I managed to get a range of different reasons why people visit casinos.
Reason 1: To gamble. Many people go to a casino because they work there, be it as a dealer, showgirl or a waitress.
Reason 10: There was no solid reason 10, but a collection of funny, strange and weird answers such as “I needed to use the bathroom” and “Someone owes me money”.
Over the course of a few weeks, I conducted a very brief survey, asking randomly chosen casino visitors one simple question. Many people decided to venture down to the casino because they were feeling bored and did not know where else to go, or what else to do on a Friday or Saturday night.
Reason 2: To eat and drink. Whether it’s to see a comedy, magic, singing or dancing show, entertainment is a major factor when it comes to drawing casino visitors.
Reason 6: Boredom. This is not a reason that you’d expect to come up too frequently in people’s minds, but it is nevertheless true. Not suprisingly, this was the main reason as you can probably guess by looking around the game tables and slot machines.
Reason 8: To learn how to play the games. A few people attended the casino to watch and learn how to play some of the casino games.. While some singles and couples attended the casino to enjoy a few drinks at the bar, others were more interested in dining out at the casino restaurant.
By: Adel Awwad
So as you can see, people don’t just visit casinos in order to gamble, but for a variety of interesting reasons.
Reason 3: Entertainment. Be it the couple who decided to meet at the casino on a date or the single man or woman who is hoping to meet someone interesting, casinos are apparently great venues for meeting interesting new people.
Reason 5: Employment. This is another very common reason for visiting a casino. Someone decided to visit the casino and bring their partner, relative, friend or colleague along.
The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version. One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871. HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922. Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.
In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.
Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment. [Rubell later died of AIDS.]
The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves “The Village People”. They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes – a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American. They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers “In the Navy” and “YMCA”. More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.
Dugas remained unrepentant. He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually. His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex. Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.” His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves. They know what’s going on out there. They’ve heard about this disease.” The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer. I’m going to die and so are you.”
This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.
Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation. In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues. Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected. Further confirmation testing in 1989 proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St. Louis, Missouri. His mother’s name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George. Rayford was described as slender. His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness.
One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America. As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate. As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount. Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men.
Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St. Memory Elvin-Lewis, thank you so much for not only your contributions to science but to my humble efforts at disseminating it for general readership. I truly appreciate it.
But, it doesn’t end there.
There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient “O” (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word “Omega” for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?). Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the “O” (for “?”), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS’ source as “Patient 0″ ["zero"] instead.
In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died. In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive.
Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people.
Noe’s condition stabilized, but then flared up again in 1975 (coincidentally the same year a strange disorder called “slim disease” was reported in Africa for the first time, the beginnings of epidemic AIDS). In addition to the respiratory condition and joint pains he developed motor skill problems and dementia before he died.
Update note:Dr. Memory Elvin Lewis
The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS. That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.
Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did. This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed.
Almost any medical professional worth his or her license, whenever a patient dies of a strange ailment, takes the precaution of preserving tissue and blood samples for future research. It is extremely fortunate that some doctors going all the way back to the late 1950s had been so far-sighted. Working backward and re-examining suspicious or otherwise unresolved deaths from contagion globally proved enriching in piecing together the history of AIDS.
The airline industry developed glamour. The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless. These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime. Therefore, they must be promiscuous. The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring. Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses. The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day). Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.
A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances. He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect. In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim. Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa). Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.
Dugas, meanwhile, knew he was sick. He didn’t know exactly what was wrong, but he had developed the skin lesions, associated with “gay cancer”. But one can’t spread cancer, of course, because cancer isn’t contagious. He indiscriminately continued having sex with men as his whims overtook him. His “advantage” was his mobility – as a flight attendant, he might be in any part of the US, Canada, or the world on a moment’s notice. His bitterness about having gay cancer crossed over into his lackadaisical attitude about possibly harming others.
Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well. Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.
The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene. The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.
Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either – somebody had to give it to him in the first place.
Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores.
From a front-line perspective
In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants. They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality. “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.
This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV.
Homophobia was so great by the late 1950s almost no airlines in the United States would hire men as flight attendants – even Eastern and Pan Am stopped hiring stewards. Stewardesses, however, were very desirable. They were marketed as young, beautiful, and sexually available–this was hardly an acceptable career choice for any he-man. In the same way that the sexual orientation of male nurses was suspect, only “pansies” wanted to be stewards.
AIDS now had a face.
Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities. His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.
Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams. It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse). One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background). He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him. To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.
In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.
Gaëtan Dugas fit right in with the gay community of the bath houses. He was blond, voluble, and open. Sex for him was a series of anonymous engagements, many times conducted hastily in bathroom stalls. He took on whatever he felt like. As well as many other men, he was developing what would become known as “The Clone Look”: close-cropped hair, largish but well-groomed mustache, muscle shirts, short shorts. [The quintessential version of "The Clone Look" would be Freddie Mercury (rock band Queen's lead vocalist who died of AIDS) after about 1981.]
For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust.
He started out as a hairdresser. Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual. He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job. He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada. This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters. In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.
The End of Days was seemingly at hand.
He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active. His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr. Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.
And the real Patient Zero – the HIV-Adam or HIV-Eve – lived and most likely died there, somewhere in the Congo, unknown and unrecognized for the catastrophic role he or she would play in human history.
This makes little sense.
The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in. Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.
Good investigative work requires dogged determination. Running an enigma to ground can take years.
Rayford lived in a brownstone in a poor neighborhood in St. Somewhere, there was a Patient Zero, the epidemiological well-spring from which this plague spewed forth.
Gaëtan Dugas, the narcissistic and embittered flight attendant, alternately feeling morose and spiteful about his condition, was given the code name “Patient Zero”, the source of the AIDS epidemic in North America.
The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old). He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened. His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically. The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised. He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ). His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”
As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida. It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history.
By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor. A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay).
Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.
Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31. His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.
Gay men realized the danger. Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent. Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others. They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men. Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the “Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).
Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54. This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world. Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there. Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity. No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54. Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies.
He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time). [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]
The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning. Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”) for “the beginning”. It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).
The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men. These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials. As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male. World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too.
The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within. Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54′s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself.
He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age). . The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen. He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”. He also had shortness of breath. His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems). This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.
The dubious distinction of being America’s “Patient Zero” – the first documented and verifiable case of AIDS in the country – belongs not to Dugas but to a mildly mentally retarded black teenager named Robert Rayford (born ca. Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.
Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim. As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.
Concern for dying gay men was not paramount on America’s mind. As more cases of the mysterious killer emerged, the name was changed from “gay cancer” to “gay-related immune deficiency” (GRID). This, at least, was an open recognition that whatever was causing the disease was compromising a body’s immune system. It didn’t explain, however, the rather esoteric choice of gay men (and soon discovered, IV drug users) by an unintelligent, non-sentient pathogen as victims. It wasn’t until the first heterosexual cases of “gay cancer” emerged that the disease was examined more closely.
AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen. Kramer was a writer in New York and a part of the gay culture. He, however, decided that merely watching his friends die quietly wasn’t enough.
Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as “gay cancer” in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as “gay cancer”.
Dr. . Louis.
Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary. What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously. It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966.
Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953. His life was on a collision course with history. In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active. [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown. He may have been bisexual.]
The commercial airlines recognized the goldmine presented by hiring female “stewardesses”. Certainly, they were paid less. There was also marketability in women that men did not have – women could be hawked by an airline as possible sex partners for the discriminating male traveler choosing its service over another.
The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture. Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island. Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away “in season”.
By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.
Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa. many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”
He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well. In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen. It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame). The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort. It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).
Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa. . It was so unusual at the time . .
Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”. Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors. An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh). [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.]
This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject. One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case. Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America.
Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem. And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.
Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977. Doctors, helpless to find the cause of death for the Noe family, preserved some tissue samples. In 1988, further testing showed Noe, his wife, and his daughter had all been HIV-positive
Mr. Louis, Missouri) was the earliest confirmed victim of AIDS in North America.
There is an interesting correlation between homosexuality and the airline industry. At least, there is a publicly perceived correlation as it pertains to airline flight attendants.
His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling. Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs. Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate.
“I’m Candy – Fly Me!”
AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans. IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive.
Gateway to the West
Before Robert Rayford in the US, there was a possible case found in a dead Jamaican native named Ardouin Antonio. He came to the US in 1927. He was working as a shipping clerk for a clothier when he died at age 49 on June 28, 1959, in Manhattan. He had developed a very rare kind of pneumonia, seemingly out of the blue. Decades later the doctor who had performed Antonio’s autopsy was asked to re-evaluate the case. Did he think Antonio possibly died of AIDS? “You bet . Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St. It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away. In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved. Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected. This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not). Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.
Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep).
Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966. Other strains have been isolated as well. As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much).
Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless. At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner).
In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived. Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities. Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men. They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco. [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).
The Road to Zero
First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners. After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed. This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest. When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer. Maybe you’ll get it.”
Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there. She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill. Her symptoms confounded her colleagues. She died in December 1977. Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive. During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.
Less Than Zero
On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.
In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease. In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa. He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea. He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa. In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections. By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver.
A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though. Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests. This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”. It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly. Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.
As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active. Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic. His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body.
The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants. This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service. Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press. It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role
Other Las Vegas casinos play with just one deck with small bets to attract players. Many tourists never leave it during their stay.. Some casinos use 8 decks and a shuffling machine to increase the house odds (or casino’s odds) and to make card counting almost impossible. What is the strip? It’s about a 4 mile stretch of a street on Las Vegas Boulevard South. It has one of the highest concentrations of quality casinos and entertainment in the city. Depending on how much money you play with, you can earn quite a bit of complimentary gifts and discounts at restaurants, stores and theatres.
If you’ve heard of Las Vegas, then I’d bet you’ve heard of the strip. With small decks, you’ll probably be seeing the better odds of 3:2, more and more, you’ll start to see rates of 6:5. This means if you hit a blackjack and your bet is $10 you’ll be paid $15 at a table with a 3:2 payout, but you’d win just $12 at a 6:5 paying table.
Player’s cards are cards offered at many casinos to gamblers who want to earn perks when they play.
The odds in blackjack vary as much by casino as they do by table